Generic selectors
Exact matches only
Search in title
Search in content
Search in posts
Search in pages

Cape Porcupine

Appearance

Cape porcupines are one of the world’s largest porcupine species. From the head to the base of it’s tail, a cape porcupine measures between 63 and 81cm (25 and 32in) long. Their tail increases this length by 11-20cm (4.3-7.9in). Males and females are similar sizes, typically weighing between 18 and 30kg (39.7 and 66lb).

Their most noticeable feature is the quills and spines which extend from their back. These are long and measure up to 30cm (11.8in) long for quills and 50cm (20in) for spines. These make them appear twice as large when raised. They can stab an attacker with these quills to defend themselves. On the tail are hollow spines which allow them to make a rattling by shaking them. The quills are modified hairs and if they fall out they will grow back.

Extending from the face are long whiskers. The rest of the body is coated with dark fur.

On each foot is five toes each with a claw. Their teeth are continuously growing so they can rip through plant material.

Cape porcupine

Scientific Name

Hystrix africaeaustralis

Conservation Status

Least Concern

Weight

18-30kg (39.7-66lbs)

Length

63-81cm (25-32in)

Lifespan

Wild 10 years

Captive 20 years

Diet

Omnivorous

Diet

Cape porcupines are omnivores. They feed upon roots, tubers, fruit, bark and cultivated crops. In some areas they are known to eat carrion. They collect bones which they gnaw on.

Range

Africa is the native home of the cape porcupine. Here they are found across the south and central areas of the continent

Habitat

They can inhabit a wide range of habitats from tropical forests to deserts. One habitat which is avoided are swamps. Part of their ability to have a wide range is a tolerance for both hot and cold.

Reproduction

Breeding takes place between May and December in the wild while in captivity they will breed year-round. Pairs will mate for life with both parents involved in the care of the offspring.

Following a successful mating it will take 94 days for the offspring to be born. These are born in a grass lined chamber which the parents make in their den. A litter can range from 1 to 4 offspring. Over half of litters are single births. At birth the average weight of the newborn is 311g (11oz). When born, their quills are soft and sensitive bristles. These harden as they grow.

Young cape porcupines will begin to try solid food at one month old. Weaning does not occur till between their third and fourth month.

They reach their full size by the end of their first year of life.

It will be another three to five months after weaning before the mother gives birth again.

Cape porcupines achieve sexual maturity at 2 years old in females and between 8 and 18 months for males.

Behavior

The cape porcupine is a nocturnal animal. During the day, they will either build their own den or shelter in a cave or crevice. A group may maintain up to 6 burrows which they move between. When it is cold the group will huddle in their burrow for warmth.

They live in small groups consisting of a monogamous pair and their young who share a den. During the day they will often go out foraging on their own.

Predators of the cape porcupine include big cats, hyenas and large birds. To defend themselves they will freeze. If attacked they move sideways and backwards to dig their quills in to the attacker. They may also hide in a burrow and puff their quills out to full size. This locks them in the den so they are not able to be dislodged. They are hunted by farmers when they dig up crops.

Quick facts

Porcupine is a word meaning ‘quill pig.’

They are the largest rodent in Africa and the largest of the porcupines.

Photo Credits

By Steven Lek (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

References

Cassola, F. 2016. Hystrix africaeaustralis (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T10748A115099085. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T10748A22232321.en. Downloaded on 11 May 2020.

oregon zoo condor release

Four Oregon Zoo Raised Condors Return to the Wild 

Oregon Zoo Elephants Smash Some Squashes for Halloween

Oregon Zoo Elephants Smash Some Squashes for Halloween 

sea life sydney displays curator

SEA LIFE Sydney Aquarium Appoints New Displays Curator 

We're Social. Follow Us

We share awesome animal photos daily

Featured Animal

little penguin
Koala

Join Our Mailing List to Get Daily Animal Profiles & Animal News Delivered to Your Mailbox.

Share via
Copy link